Monday, October 26, 2015

East Jerusalem and the Arab's Complaints

Nadene Goldfoot                                                                          
Jerusalem being fought over

"In July 1980, the Knesset passed the Jerusalem Law as part of the country's Basic Law. The law declared Jerusalem the unified capital of Israel."

The question has been raised and an Arab spokesman has stated some different reasons why there has been rioting by the Arabs in Jerusalem in the last few weeks.  He stated that since Israel had closed off Jerusalem from the rest of the West Bank (Judea and Samaria) in 1994, the city had served as the hub of Palestinians life.  It served their religious role as well.  All of the major Palestinian economic, social, cultural, educational, medical and service institutions were located in Jerusalem.  He said that for decades, Israel had been strangling East Jerusalem denying its Palestinian inhabitants freedom, opportunity, dignity and hope with devastating impact.

First, Israel's army had to close off Gaza and Judea-Samaria on February 27, 1994 from the rest of Israel because of a massacre of Muslim worshipers in Hebron that left scores dead.  The closure of Judea-Samaria began Sunday at 3:am for an indefinite period.  Entry of Arab residents to work in Israel was not to be permitted.  The closure on Gaza was imposed after the mosque massacre on Friday and would remain in force.

The day before this army announcement, 3 more Arabs died in disturbances. The IDF actions during and after the shooting were being questioned.  It looks like the closure was to protect Muslims.

This mosque was at the Tomb of the Patriarchs, where both Jews and Arabs visit since it is where Abraham, Sarah, Isaac are buried. The shooting was done by one man, "American-Israeli Baruch Goldstein."  

It happened "during the overlapping religious holidays of both Jewish Purim and Muslim Ramadan.  The attack left 29 people dead and 125 wounded.  Goldstein was only stopped after he was overpowered and beaten to death by survivors."   This happened 21 years ago.

Certainly people have had time to realize such things can never again happen, but no, Arabs have overstepped their bounds by recently going into a synagogue on November 18, 2014, a Tuesday in Jerusalem (not east but in the Har Nof area of West Jerusalem), and shot and killed those worshiping there including my distant shirttail relative and genealogy pal, Rabbi Abraham Goldberg of Jerusalem, 59 years old..  Also killed were 3 other Rabbis.  They were all doing their morning prayers.  2 Arabs did the attack with a gun and butcher knives.

"The terror attack -- the deadliest in Jerusalem since a man with an automatic weapon killed eight seminary students in March 2008 -- came at a particularly tense time in that city and the region at large. It follows a series of recent deadly stabbings and vehicle incidents that, while not the large-scale suicide bombings that defined last decade's second intifada or the rocket attacks from Gaza earlier this year, have left Jerusalem on edge." A police officer was also killed; 8 deaths total.  

Now, the UN has just decided that since the tomb lies in  Samaria, it shall be under Arab control.  This is something the PA asked for and got Arab nations to sponsor.  Up to now, all religions could visit the site, but now, I question what will happen.

Since 1998, "By 2012, almost every neighborhood in East Jerusalem had health clinics that included advanced medical equipment, specialized ER units, X-ray diagnostic centers and dental clinics. Israel's system of healthcare entitles all Israeli citizens and East Jerusalem residents to receive free healthcare service funded by the Israeli government. In some cases, East Jerusalem residents can get free transportation to clinics, free subscriptions to health clubs or free dental care, to ensure they do not switch to a rival health care HMO provider." 
East Jerusalem, Judea-Samaria barrier

Zobay is saying that Jerusalem, and he makes no distinction in his blog that he means East Jerusalem where the Arab population mainly lives, was Palestine's heart, and the flow of people in and out was its lifeblood.  He knows that until 1967 it was under Jordanian control, but by siding with the other Arab nations in the onslaught upon Israel in the 1967 Six Day War, lost the land that was Judea, Samaria, Gaza and East Jerusalem.  
Jews at night at the Western Wall, 2nd holy site for Jews.  1st is the site of our destroyed 2nd Temple which lies under the mosque that Jews are not allowed to be near.  

Jerusalem, the city mentioned in the bible 614 times,  became unified again under Israel in  1980. It is Israel's capital and never has been the capital of any other government.     .  Does Zobay realize that "Jews were ethnically cleansed from eastern Jerusalem when they were attacked by 5 Arab armies in 1948?  Israel has not done that to the Arabs.    Does he understand the Jewish history and it's connection to Jerusalem in that it had been the capital of Israel for 1,700 years before the Arab conquest after 632?  Does he understand that the name, Jerusalem, is never mentioned in the Koran?  The importance of Jerusalem to  Muslims is the Temple Mount which is in East Jerusalem, which is the Old City, the site of our Jewish 2nd Temple which lays under their mosque and just happens to be our most holy site.
Arab firebombing in Jerusalem

Now, if I were a Muslim and were living in East Jerusalem and wanted to keep the conditions as they stand with Jordan presiding over the Temple Mount because of the good nature of Moshe Dayan at the end of the war of 1967, the Israeli General who allowed this to happen, I would do my darndest to get along with the Israeli society.  

Look at what Hamas as done along with Fatah; 2 Intifadas and now their murdering and stabbings may be starting a 3rd.  Even a few Arab doctors were stabbing Jewish patients.  

Israel has included Arabs to serve in the Knesset.  For every complaint they have, I can prove that they brought on adverse conditions upon themselves because of their acts.  "Without Israeli security control that exists today, Jerusalem would descend into chaos, with rival militias battling each other like in the Gaza Strip. "  Hamas and Fatah fight each other more than they make plans for their people.  They fight for power.  

When an Arab kills a Jew, the PA names a street or park after them.  Children are taught in school that the land belongs to Arabs, not the Jews with maps to reflect this lie.  Nothing they do helps to unify or bring about peace between the 2 peoples.  Their results are the riots they want.  After all, when an Arab man dies, his reward in battle such as this is 72 virgins.  Jews have no such thing in their religion.  Peace is to their advantage.  To save even one life is what they strive for since they feel it saves the world.  No, a Jew is not looking to be a martyr, but to do good deeds that save lives, not takes them.  

Zobgy tells people that Israel confiscated 1/3 of Palestinian-owned land around Jerusalem to build Jewish only  colonies and highways connecting them to Israel.  

The rules of the end of 1967 showed areas A, B, and C.  "Since Judea and Samaria were never officially annexed by the Israeli government, the IDF Civil Administration has jurisdiction over the districts today. "" The communities that Israel built in Gaza and Judea and Samaria were in undeveloped, uninhabited areas and are entirely legal.  Palestinians have legitimate claims to sovereignty over some of the land..  Many are longtime inhabitants who feel they have been deprived of political rights and self-determination.  Israel disputes their territorial claims and Israel also has strong claims to the land."  

"Since 1993, the regions have been divided into areas A, B, and C.  
Area A was assigned to the Palestinian Authority where most of the Arab residents live. According to many estimates, 1.5 million Arabs live in the region.  Accurate statistics have been difficult to obtain with claims that Arab demographics have been artificially inflated.   Area B is under joint control and has large tracts of barren land.  Israel has full control of Area C where most of the over 340,000 Jewish residents live. "

"In 1948 the Latrun section of the highway was taken over by Jordan" until  the end of the 1967 war.  "In 1978 a new section opened, connecting former Road 10 (the Tel Aviv – Ben Gurion Airport road) with Sha'ar HaGai. The new section formed the third freeway in the country, after Highways 2 and 4." 

My summary of all of Zobgy's complaints and blame is that he sees only Palestinian vicimization, and the deeper story that he doesn't know about, being he resides in the USA, is how these young people have been raised to be what they are, ready to stab Jews at the first instigation from Abbas or others, and that's just what has happened.  Since Abbas cannot make peace with Israel without being in trouble with Hamas, because he had unified with them and their goal is the same, and he hasn't coaxed Israel into a blanket acceptance of a Palestinian state without controls, he instigates.  He's 80 years old, but doesn't really care about the lives of his people, only his reputation and standing. From one side of his mouth he instigates attacks while with the other side of his mouth he says, oh, stop, how terrible!  The fact of the matter is that Zobgy and other Palestinians have not been given the real facts, but a made up version that the Palestinians want their people to abide to.  We're not all on the same page.

"The international community should strongly condemn Abbas’ incitement and call on the PA president to cease this encouragement of violence and terrorism. The inflammatory language and actions must cease so that calm can return to Jerusalem and its Temple Mount in particular. - See more at: below under references.  

The international community remains deaf and dumb to whatever Abbas does and says.  

" Abbas added fuel to the flames by proclaiming: “The Muslim and Christian world will never accept Israeli claims that Jerusalem is theirs. Jerusalem is our capital and we will never give this up; Jerusalem that was occupied in 1967 is our Jerusalem. We will safeguard and protect our holy places.”  He doesn't give into the facts of life.  The Arabs still think that the land is all Palestine and under the Ottoman Empire.   His attitude did win over UNESCO, though, who gave him the Cave of the Patriarchs to police.  Evidently it was easier to give into his screaming instead of rationally weighing evidence.  

Resource:, author of Arab Voices, President of Arab Americans
" "   

Saturday, October 24, 2015

Steps Leading to Creation of Jews and Their Multiple Male DNA haplotypes

Nadene Goldfoot                                                                            

Know that Abraham, the first monotheist, father of Ishmael, traditionally the ancestor of the Arab peoples  and Isaac, father of Jacob-Israel,  was born in c1948 BCE.  Until the boy king Tut's father, Akhenaten (c1350 BCE) , had his revelation of worshipping only one G-d, the Sun, primitive people had been worshipping a multitude of gods, and enjoyed doing so.  Akhenaten was an anomaly, and his worship and plans of changing the religion of his people were not successful.  Young King Tut went back to the old ways of their religion.  This part of Egyptian history goes back to their 18th Dynasty from 1569-1350 BCE.  His place in history comes after Moses who was born about 50 years before him in 1391-1393 BCE  and died in 1271-1273 BCE  before this Pharaoh.    A pharaoh was looked upon as a god.  Egyptians became polytheistic again with Tut. It suited their lifestyle, their economic structure of keeping people working.
Terah, an idol maker and merchant of them and Abraham's father who died in 2083 BCE at age 205.
He and his sons were Ivri (from the other side.)  .  He had 3 sons;  Abram, born 1948 BCE in the 2nd millennium, Nahor and Haran.   His grandson, Isaac, was 35 years old then. Their haplogroup had to have been J1.   They had settled in Haran.
Along came Abram,  the Ivri,  who also had a revelation of there being only one G-d that was far more abstract than the later  Akhenaten's concept whose belief centered on the sun, something tangible one could see and imagine interaction with.
Abram was visited by G-d, an unseen god, from his voice that he was hearing,  and was given a preview of the future of his family.  He was told that he would become the father of many nations at a time of his old age, which was hard for even him to believe.  We understand that Abram's haplotype was J1 from the fact that present day Jewish Cohens carry this haplotype.  So do many Arabs, such as the king of Jordan; Abdullah II with a slight deviation from the Jewish line.
Abram, at age 75,  and his wife, Sarai,  had left his home in Haran in Ur-kasdim (today in Iraq)  because of G-d's dictum and traveled with his nephew, Lot, his brother's son (J1) to the land of Canaan.  They traveled with all their possessions, including what he had amassed in wealth, and their offspring.  It was only after reaching Canaan,and till they came to the site of Shechem and then the Plain of Moreh that they spotted some inhabitants of Canaan.  Abram kept going onward till he came to the mountain east of Beth-el on the west and Ai on the east and put down his tent. There he built an altar to G-d.  Being curious, he then proceeded to travel toward the south.
Israelites entering Canaan led by Joshua since Moses died just before
Now, Canaan was the name for Syria back in the 15th to 13th centuries.  It also applied to the coast of Eretz Yisral which was called Palestine after 135 CE by the Romans who had burned down Jerusalem and its Temple.  The Israelites, led by Moses and before entering, by Joshua from Egypt, had conquered the land, in English called The Land of Israel, and the northern part was called Aram/Syria.  Traditionally, the Canaanites descended from Canaan, son of Ham that had turned into 11 different peoples who lived between the Nile and the Euphrates.  Canaanites at this period of time were a mixture of the Horites, Hittites (who were always attacking the Egyptians) and Hebrews and dated back to the 17th century of the Hyksos period.  When the Israelites reclaimed the land, the Canaanites were almost entirely obliterated or assimilated, not only by the invading Israelites but also by the Philistines along the coast, Arameanas in the north, and the remnants were subjected by kings David and Solomon and subsequently absorbed.  They as a people no longer existed.
Abram and Sarai were nomadic people on the verge of settling down.  When there was a famine in the land, he and Sarah went into Egypt, begging her to call him a brother and not a husband, for she was beautiful-though old, and he was afraid of being killed in order to steal her away by the Egyptians.  Living through that escapade, they returned to Eretz Yisrael/Canaan with much livestock, silver and gold.  He traveled towards Beth-el where his first tent had been pitched where he had also built an altar.
Lot pointing in the direction he'll move to in order to keep peace between their herdsmen. Abraham will remain where he is.   
Lot, his nephew also had gained livestock of flocks and cattle and tents.  His herdsman fought with Abram's herdsmen.  Canaanites and Perizzites lived in this land as well and it's possible that the  herdsmen came from these people.  Abram tells Lot to go his way and he'll go the opposite way.

Lot chose the whole plain of the Jordan River to reside.  Abram stayed in the land of Canaan and Lot lived in the cities of the plain, being nomadic by pitching his tents as far as the city of Sodom, a city full of wicked and sinful people.  Also quite nomadic, Abram moved his tent and lived in the plains of Mamre in Hebron, and built an altar there, too.
There were people with kings in this land.  Canaan was made up of little cities with kings.  These 4 kings made war on another group of kings.
1. Amraphel, king of Shinar
2. Arioch, king of Ellasar
3. Chedorlaomer, king of Elam
4. Tidal, king of Goilim

They made war on the following:
1. Bera, king of Sodom
2. Birsha, king of Gomorrh
3. Shinab, king of Admah
4. Shemeber, king of Zeboiim
5. Zoar, king of Bela

At one time they all had been united at the Valley of Siddim (Salt Sea) under Chedorlaomer for 12 years, but then rebelled for 13 years.  The next year Chedorlaomer and the 3 kings who stayed with him attacked
1. the Rephaim at Ashteroth-karnaim
2. the Zuzim in Ham
3. the Emim at Shaveh-kiriathaim
4. the Horites at Seir mountains

They had expanded as far as the Plain of Paran by the desert, turned back and came to En-mishpat (Kadesh).  Then they struck all the land of the Amalekites and  the Amorites who lived in Hazazon-tamar.

The king of Sodom and his 4 other partners fought the kings Amraphel and his 3 partners in the Valley of Siddim.  The Valley of Siddim was full of bitumen (an asphalt of Asia Minor used in ancient times as a cement and mortar, like tar) wells and Sodom's king and pals fled and fell into them.  Others fled to the mountain and took all of Sodom and Gomorrah's wealth and food and left.  It was then that they kidnapped Lot and all his possessions.  Of course Abram was told about it and his allies were Mamre, the Amorite,  brother of Eshcol and brother of Aner.  He had his workers, born during his life in his house, 318 of them,  and they chased the kidnappers as far as Dan.  They struck them at night, and chased them to Hobah which was north of Damascus and rescued them all including Lot, women and the rest of the men.
When Abram returned from defeating Chedorlaomer and his group in the Valley of Shaveh (king's valley), the king of Sodom met him there. He escorted Abram to the king of Salem, Malchizedek, who brought out bread and wine.  He was also a priest of G-d, the Most High, identified as Shem, son of Noah.  This is the interpretation from Ramban, biblical commentator.   Evidently Malchizedek was different from other priests of the day who served angels.  Malchizedek had also evidently had the revelation of there being only one G-d.
The priest gave Abram a 10th of all the possessions he brought back.  The king of Sodom wanted all the people and gave the possessions to Abram. Abram nixed the offers and only accepted  for his allies, their share and food they had eaten and nothing for himself.  He didn't want to be beholding to this king of such an evil city.

The descendants of Abram were to be given the land from the river of Egypt to the great river, the Euphrates; with the Kennite, Kenizzite, Kadmonite, Hittite, Perizzite, Rephaim, Amorite, Canaanite, Girgashite and Jebusite.  One can see that there were many groups of people living in the land.  Not all were of one people.  They were fighters, used to forming gangs and beating up on each other.
Sarai bringing Hagar to Abraham
After 10 years of living in Canaan, Abram still  had no children up to this point with his wife and niece, Sarai, so took Hagar, her handmaid who was actually an Egyptian princess.  Sarai planned on adopting a child of Hagar.  When expecting a child, Hagar held this  fact over Sarai, angering her by remarking about Sarai's age.  Thus, the 2 women did not get along anymore because Hagar no longer acted the part of a servant to Sarai.  Hagar bore Ishmael (J1haplogroup)  Abram was already 86 years old at the time.

When Abram was 99, he learned through G-d that his name was now to be Abraham and he and Sarai-changed to Sarah, would have a son, Isaac.  Sarah would bear the ancestor of kings.  Sarah would be 90 years old giving birth for the 1st time to Isaac.
Circumcision was  practiced in Egypt, as found on the walls of tombs there.  It was practiced by many Semites, and with Jews called "the covenant of Abraham as it was used as the sign of his covenant with G-d.   
      Abraham was to perform circumcisions; and those circumcised were Ishmael, all the servants born in his household and all those he had bought which was all the men in his house including himself at age 99. Being he had bought men, they would have been his slaves.   Ishmael was 13.  These people could have intermarried and had remained with the family while moving to Egypt and remained with them during the 400 years of living in Egypt. Being there were these males other than relatives of Abraham, it could be the reason why Jews are not all J1s.
This no doubt is the group that went into Egypt during the next famine 30 years after the prophesy from G-d to Abraham starting with the birth of Isaac.  They were in Egypt for a total of 400 years:

  20 years Jacob was with Laban in Haran
200 years of literal exile in Egypt
Slaves making bricks in Egypt. Israelite slaves built a storage city in Egypt, not the pyramids.  2650 BCE is when the 1st pyramid was built, way before Moses was born.   
116 years of Egyptian servitude of which last 86 years time of harsh oppression when Pharaoh intensified the suffering of the Ivrim, Abraham's descendants from Jacob.
Moses, who was Abraham's great, great, great grandson, led the Exodus from Egypt (1393-1273 BCE) The Exodus has been also figured to have happened from 1518 BCE  by an astronomer.  
Parting of the sea for crossing
   After these 400 years came the freeing by Moses called the Exodus and Abraham's offspring took back possession of his original land, Canaan.  All the slaves held by the Egyptians went with the 12 tribes who also became the future Jewish people.  This accounts for the haplotypes that differ from J1.  There is found today among the Jews, J2 as well, and E, G, I, R1a, R1b and Q for males.
Jewish haplogroups other than J1 therefore came from people who were attached to Abraham and stayed with the family, even in going into Egypt and out during the Exodus, or they could have been slaves taken by Egypt who also had become part of the Exodus of Jacob's descendants.  It has been found through DNA that "the male ancestors of the Ashkenazi Jews could be traced mostly to the Middle East, refuting the belief that Ashkenazis are not real Jews and the political idea of some that they do not belong back there in the creation of Israel again in 1948 CE. 

Also, "Jews (Ashkenazi and Sephardi)  are more genetically similar to groups in northern Fertile Crescent (Kurds, Turks and Armenians) than to Arabs. The common genetic Middle Eastern background (of Jewish populations ) predates the ethnogenesis in the region and concludes that the Y chromosome pool of Jews is an integral part of the genetic landscape of Middle East."  

    1. E originated 50,000 years ago with groups from Middle East, those near Mediterranean, represent ancient genetic influence from Middle East to Europe. E1b1b (formerly E3b) is 2nd highest among Jews after J1. " It is found in moderate amounts in all Jewish populations, from Ashkenazi, Sephardic, Kurdish, Yemen, Samaritan and even among Djerba Jewish groups." 
   2. G originated about 30,000 years ago  along eastern edge of Middle East; 7% of Ashkenazi Jews 1/3 of Moroccan Jews have this.  Also, NE Europe has Jews with this.  
   3. I  originated, traces in Middle East
   4. J, J2, J1 originated 10,000-15,000 years ago in Middle East Fertile Crescent including Jews, Arabs, Armenians, Kurds, and in Iran and Iraq; J2 in Mediterranean, India, Cohen Modal is J1. Cohens were descendants of Aaron, brother of Moses who was designated high priest in the Temple with responsibilities, a few still carried out today. 21 haplogroups have been found in Cohens evidently besides J1  "Five of them  comprise 79.5% of all haplogroups of Cohen."   In a summary by geneticists, they said of Cohens:   " Our estimates of the coalescence time also lend support to the hypothesis that the extended CMH represents a unique founding lineage of the ancient Hebrews that has been paternally inherited along with the Jewish priesthood."
  5. Q, Q1b1a, originated 15,000-20,000 years ago, migrated through northern Eurasia into area of Ur. 5% of today's Jews have this.
  6. R, R1, R2  originated 30,000-35,000 years ago; T, common in Europe, Western Eurasia, R2 in India, Iran, central Asia.  R1a perhaps with Khazarian Jews.  domesticated horses, Levites found with this haplogroup, R1b is the most common in Europe from 10,000-12,000 years ago (Atlantic Modal Haplotype).  Egyptian King Tut thought to be R1, and R1b are in 10% of Ashkenazi Jews.

Tanakh (Jewish Bible) Genesis 13: 1-17:23.The Stone Edition, ArtScroll Series, Mesorah Heritage Foundation  E haplogroup information
The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia

Thursday, October 22, 2015

Holiness To Jews In Hebron Taken By UNESCO

Nadene Goldfoot                                                                          
Housing Cave holding Jewish Patriarchs and Matriarchs in Hebron, Judea.

The most holy site in Jerusalem to Jews is the Temple Mount in Jerusalem where the 1st and then the 2nd Temple had been built.  The 2nd most holy site is the Cave of Machpelah-the Tomb of the Patriarchs, which UNESCO took from Israeli protection and gave to the rioting Palestinians.  Why?  Well, it happens to be situated in Hebron, now a Palestinian town.  The Palestinians call it "Sanctuary of Abraham or the Ibrahimi Mosque (Arabicالحرم الإبراهيمي‎, "  This was a legal transaction and is cited in the Torah.  

UNESCO Declares Tomb of Patriarchs and Rachel's Tomb Muslim Sites
The vote in Paris was 26 in favor, six against and 15 abstentions. The US, Germany, United Kingdom, Estonia and Netherlands, Czech Republic voted against the resolution while a number of other European countries such as Albania, Austria, Ethiopia, Angola, France, Spain, and Italy were among those that abstained.
This means they will be in the hands of the Jordanians.  What religious leader could there be from the Palestinians?  
View of Cave of Patriarchs and the Tel Rumeida neighborhood in Hebron
Hebron, also called in Hebrew, Kiriath-Arba, is a very ancient city in Judah, 18 miles south of Jerusalem.  Before Abraham's time, it was controlled by the Hittites.
Abraham, the father of Ishmael and Isaac, had bought the plot of land 3,700 years ago with this cave from from a Hittite when he needed a plot to bury his wife and niece, Sarah. Ishmael's mother was Hagar, the handmaiden of Sarah and daughter of the Pharaoh.  The Bible connects the Hittites with the Canaanites being some lived in Eretz Yisrael at an early period.  They were one of the 7 different people from whom the Israelites conquered Canaan.  Later, they joined up with King David and were warriors in his army. King  Solomon, David's son,  married some Hittite women.

  Today, a mosque stands on this very site.  This became the family burial place and holds not only Sarah but also Abraham, son Isaac, grandson Jacob and his mother,  Rebecca and her sister, Leah.  Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Rebecca and Leah are our Jewish Patriarchs and Matriarchs.  Rachel, Jacob's wife, is buried near Bethlehem where she died in childbirth with Benjamin.
Grandson of Abraham is Jacob and his family, standing with Rachel and baby Joseph, Leah with  6 children, and their handmaidens, Zilpah and Bilhah and their children by Jacob
Both the Tomb of the Patriarchs and Rachel's Tomb have just been handed over to the Palestinians who have no connection to Rachel and only to Abraham by UNESCO, an arm of the United Nations.  They have given in to demands of the Palestinians because they are now living in Hebron and Bethlehem and hate Jews, showing it and their decision not to be peaceful by rioting and knifing  Jews in Jerusalem at this very time of this decision.

Abraham (2nd millenniuim BCE)  had bought a double cave.  A massive building covers it in which many artifacts from the Early Israelite Period of the past 30 centuries have been uncovered from the days of Herod.  It has been a place for gatherings and Jews come to pray at the graves of their Patriarchs.

Moses (1391- 1271 BCE)  had died outside of Canaan and Joshua took over as leader of the Exodus from Egypt.  He assigned this very piece of land to be Hebron to Caleb, one of the leaders of the tribe of Judah and a member of the Kenizzite family,  and it became a levitical city and a city of refuge.  David reigned there for 7 1/2 years before making his capital in Jerusalem.                  
Jews lived in Hebron during the Byzantine Period and under Arab rule.  The modern city of today is somewhat to the east of the historical location and was one of the 4 sacred towns to Jews; Hebron, Jerusalem, Tiberias and Safed.  Jews lived in Hebron throughout recent centuries and in 1890 had a population of 1,500 with a yeshivot and other religious schools.  The great Lithuanian yeshivah of Slobodka was transferred there in 1925.

In  1929, while the USA suffered from the worst stockmarket crash of all time, the Arabs massacred 67 Jews in Hebron, instigated and encouraged by the hateful Haj Amain al-Husseini, the Sherif of Jerusalem.  At that time, 700 Jews were living in Hebron.  Survivors fled from Hebron in order to continue living.  About 30 Jewish families returned 2 years later in 1931.  The Arabs rioted again in 1936, chasing any Jews living there away.

We know that May 14, 1948 was the birth of modern-day Israel, verified and legalized through both the League of Nations and the United Nations, a birth that was voted on and accepted by the majority of the world's nations. Hebron's population in 1967 was 38,310.  After the Six-Day War of 1967, a number of Jews had returned to Hebron and established the Kiryat Arba quarter east of the city.  This section held 3,700 Jews in 1988. 
 It was then that the Chief Rabbi of Israel's Defense Forces, Major-General Rabbi Shlomo Goren, was the 1st Jew to enter the Cave of Machpelah.  "Many restrictions are imposed on Jewish prayers and customs at the Tomb of the Patriarchs" because it was still controlled "by the Muslim Waqf (Religious Trust) that took control during the Arab conquest." 

 Moshe Dayan had allowed this Jordanian control over the Temple Mount as well because of the Dome of the Rock mosque there, too.   It was his step towards having peaceful relations with the Jordanians. He was Israel's Minister of Defense during Six Day War. Before that, he was in the army and was chief of general staff of the Israeli army from 1953 to 58.  He joined the Knesset in 1959.  Today 700 Jews are living in Hebron and 250,000 Arabs.  

Throughout history, Jews have seen foreign conquerors and invaders come and use the site for their own purposes depending on their religion.  The Byzantines and Crusaders turned the spot into a church.  Muslims built a mosque here when they conquered Hebron 700 years ago.  They then forbid Jews entry to the Tomb.  They were not even allowed past the 7th step on the staircase outside the building.

With Jerusalem's liberation in 1967, 300,000 people have come yearly to visit the Tomb of the Patriarchs.  It is divided into 3 rooms:  Ohel (tent) Avraham, Ohel Yitzhak (Isaac), and Ohel Ya'akov (Jacob).  Jews have not been given access to Ohel Yitzhak, the largest room, with the exception of 10 days a year.  Why this room is a mystery to me.
Abbas, Chairman of Palestine Authority
Now, with this ruling, will Jews be allowed to visit their holy sites?  We know that Palestinians have already said that they will not allow any Jews to live in their Palestine, once they have it.  Under Israeli law, all religions have been free to visit their holy sites.  There is no comparison between the 2 people.  When under Muslim ruling, this is how they treated Jewish sites.

"Upon its capture by the Arab Legion, the Jewish Quarter of the Old City was destroyed and its residents expelled. Fifty-eight synagogues—some hundreds of years old—were destroyed, their contents looted and desecrated. Some Jewish religious sites were turned into chicken coops or animal stalls. The Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives, where Jews had been burying their dead for over 2500 years, was ransacked; graves were desecrated; thousands of tombstones were smashed and used as building material, paving stones or for latrines in Arab Legion army camps. The Intercontinental Hotel was built on top of the cemetery and graves were demolished to make way for a highway to the hotel. The Western Wall became a slum area."  

The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia
Victor Sharpe, writer

Wednesday, October 21, 2015

Palestinians Want Jerusalem's Very Jewish Western Wall: Working on UNESCO

Nadene Goldfoot                                                                             

The Palestinians are now trying to say that Jews have no history to the Western Wall aka Wailing Wall in Jerusalem where Jews go to pray.  They have a lot of Arab support in the UN and are presenting their own version of the history of Jerusalem.  They recognize only the Islamic connection to the Holy City, City of David, Jerusalem.
View of Western Wall lower right and above is Temple Mount with Mosque in Center
These Arabs are trying to make out that the Western Wall is part of Islam's al-Aqsa Mosque.  To do this, they have presented a terrible resolution, showing they know nothing about history pre-Islam's Mohammed.  "The proposal is contained in a draft resolution to the executive board of UNESCO, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. The agency formally designates cultural treasures around the world."  The Palestinians got 6 states behind this proposal;  "Algeria, Egypt, Kuwait, Morocco, Tunisia and the United Arab Emirates."  I am truly surprised at Egypt for doing this since they are at peace with Israel.  This is a terrible thing to propose to a friend.  I suppose we should claim the pyramids  in Egypt being Jewish slaves built them, then, and a few cities.  

Here are some facts they are repressing in everyone's minds that they administer.
. After 400 years of slavery in Egypt, Moses came along in 1351 BCE and took the Israelites out of bondage and headed for their old home in Canaan.  After 40 years of wandering,  they arrived in 1271BCE when Moses died and was buried outside the land and then Joshua took over.
Joshua, fighting to possess Canaan
The 12 tribes of Jacob, aka Israel, were told where to settle using Moses's plan, administered by Joshua.  650,000 had started on the Exodus.
The 1st census taken showed 603,550 people
The 2nd census taken showed 601,730 people  with a loss of 1,820 from the  40 year march.
Joshua, Judge of Israel
The people were first ruled by Judges, YehoshuaJoshua of the tribe of Ephriam, in about 1270 BCE  being the first. He was followed by 15 more;   Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah and Barak, Gideon, Abimelech, Tola, and Jair.                                      
Deborah, a Judge
Then they had the Ammonite rule of Jephitah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, Samson, Eli and Samuel, all Jewish judges.
King Saul died fighting the Philistines and so did his 3 sons.
The people saw that their neighbors had kings, so clamoured and insisted on being governed by one, also.  Saul was chosen as the first king in the 1000s BCE, son of Kish of the tribe of Benjamin.  The Israelites were in danger militarily from the Philistines and Ammonites.  Samuel, a judge and prophet, had chosen Saul.  They had a victory and defended themselves against the Philistine danger and fought off the Moabites, Ammonites, and Arameans.

The next king was David who ruled from 1010 BCE to 970 BCE.  He was the youngest son of Jesse of the tribe of Judah, and was born in Bethlehem.  He had been Saul's armor-bearer and became Saul's son in law by marrying his daughter, Michal.

David's son, Solomon was the next king from 961-920 BCE and his mother was Bathsheba.  Politically, Solomon was called the King of Peace and was able to build the 1st Temple.  He had 1,000 wives and concubines.  Solomon was able to rest due to his father's achievements to protect the realm which extended from Egypt to the Euphrates and was the most energetic in the entire region.  Less war meant they were able to develop in the cultural sphere of the arts of historiograph, parables, and elegant writing developed as well as several biblical works such as Song of Songs, Ecclesiates, Psalm 72.  Solomon was widely known for his wisdom.  Who hasn't heard the story of how he decided between 2 women as to who a baby belonged?  He used psychology.

When Solomon died in 920 BCE, the southern half of Israel broke off to create Judah from which Jews take their name.  They kept Jerusalem as their capital while Israel took Samaria.  Israel chose an Ephraimite to be king, Jeroboam, while Judah had as king a son of King Solomon, Rehoboam.  Both started serving in 933 BCE.
Israelites being led away by Assyrians.  Israel lost territory of land east of Jordan River, Galilee, and Philistia, Tyre, Moab and Edom became Assyrian provinces.  Shalmaneser took Samaria and Sargon captured it in 721 BCE
Assyria attacked Israel in 722-721 BCE and led Israelites into captivity.  Hoshea was the king at the time, and his reign ended in 721 BCE.
 Sargon annexed the country, and deported 27,290 Israelites to Assyria and Media.  He replaced them with Syrian and Babylonian prisoners.

He was the last king of Israel which had lasted from 1271 BCE with the take-over of the land as dictated to do by G-d to 721 BCE, a total of  550 years.  Remember that the USA is only 239 years old.  If we even counted from 1620 when the first pilgrim ship, the Mayflower landed, it would only be 395 years of being on the North American land.                                                                          
   As for Judah,  they were able to have another 124 years of happiness before the Babylonians with their king Nebuchadnezzar came along in 597 BCE and also carted away Jews into captivity.  They did more damage in 586 BCE by repeating their actions.  .Judah's last king was Zedekiah whose reign ended in 586 BCE.  Counting Israel's days of which Judah was part of and adding on these 124 more years, this gives the Judeans or Jews,  the land lasting 674 years of continuance- but not ending the time Jews live here.  That has been going on with a smaller Jewish population that has been under many countries' powers, but hasn't turned into another county such as Palestine.
Working on Temple in Jerusalem after destruction
The Temple was rebuilt and called the 2nd Temple from 538 to 515 BCE.
General Bar Kokhba; Bar Kosiba Simeon, nephew of Rabbi Eleazar of Modiin, descendant of King David
  Palestine was simply the name of the land that the Romans gave it after fighting against the Jewish General Bar Kokhba for 3 years from 132 to 135 CE, the longest battle they had had.  They were so angry about it that they referred to the land from then on by the name of Palaestina, denoting the land of the Jewish enemy, the Philistines. Herodatus as called it Palaistine, and Palestine was the name the Ottoman Empire referred it as for 400 years, ending their hold when they lost WWI in 1917 as their entire empire was lost except Turkey.                                                            
However, the tribe of Judah, the largest of the 12 tribes,  was filled in with the tribe of Benjamin, and they all were able to live and continue on the land.  The Romans came along and occupied the land in 63 BCE.  They put in their choice of  leaders from the Jewish population, and Herod was chosen as king.
70 CE, destruction of 2nd Temple and Jerusalem, scattering of Jews who were kept out by Romans
 The Romans destroyed Jerusalem and burned the 2nd Temple down in 70 CE, 133 terrible years after entering.  They had ruled with an iron hand, hanging thousands of Jews on crosses for minor infringements of their power and rule, including the Christian leader, Jesus.                                                        
Assigned areas where 12 tribes of Jacob (Israel) lived in Eretz Yisrael

Eretz Yisrael, The Jewish Homeland  itself, had been the home of the Jewish people from the time of Joshua entering in 1271 BCE till 70 CE, a total of 1,291 years, and the Palestinians are trying to say that we have no historical claim on the Western Wall, a wall attached to the Temple Mount.

2nd Temple of Solomon
The Western Wall/ Wailing Wall, or Kotel Maaravi, is part of the wall that was around Herod's Temple which was still standing in the Old City of Jerusalem so near the 2nd Temple, built  by the returnees from Babylon from  538 to 515 BCE, 23 years of rebuilding .
 The 5 lower courses, each over 3 feet high, date back from the time of King Herod (ruled from 73 BCE to 4 BCE), son of an Idumean father named Antipater  and a Nabatean mother named Cypros, and appointed by the Roman Senate.  The Romans allowed him to handle internal affairs but not foreign policy.
  The wall continues over 60 feet underground.  He had rebuilt  the Temple in Jerusalem on a magnificent scale and erected the 2 new cities of Sebaste and Caesarea.

Where Jews go first in Jerusalem; to the Wall
 However, he was not a beloved king by the Jewish people.  The Jews were still attached to their former Hasmonean rulers that had been ousted.  Taxation was most heavy because of Herod's extravagance and because of Mark Antony demanding large sums from his protege.  Herod was known to murder his rivals  and even had his own wife, Mariamne, murdered along with their 2 sons, Alexander and Aristobulus and his firstborn, Antipater. He had learned well from the Romans.
Because it is close to the Temple Mount which holds the Jewish Holy of Holies of the 2nd Temple, this part of the wall was regarded as sacred as far back as the Talmudic Period.  Since the 10th century, regular services were held before it.  As the area in front of the Western Wall was Moslem property, a serious dispute broke out between Jews and Moslem in 1929, when the British were holding the mandate for Palestine.  Rioting broke out and Moslems were killing Jews.

Then in 1931, a special commission of the League of Nations regulated the rights of the parties.  From 1948, Jews were cut off from the Western Wall, which was under Jordanian control since their King Abdullah confiscated 80% of the Jewish Homeland and England allowed it to happen.  This happened despite a paragraph in the Israel-Jordan 1949 Armistice Agreement affirming Jewish right of access.  
From 1948, Jews could not visit their wall until they had won the 1967 Six Day War.  Jordan had teamed up with other Arab countries against little Israel so lost that section of Jerusalem.
1967-Dancing in front of Western Wall in joy
 The Wall has been since then under Jewish sovereignty for the 1st time since the 2nd Temple Period.  On Shavuot 1967, the 1st day the Wall could be visited by the public, 200,000 people went there, and since then is a focal point for Jews from all over the world to visit and pray.  Finally, East Jerusalem, the part Jordan had held till the 1967 War, was reunified in June 1967 with West Jerusalem.  They are now under one mayor.

As for any Islamic connection the Arabs have to East Jerusalem and the Temple Mount, this is what happened.  During the siege of Jerusalem during the Roman war, the 2nd Temple served as a center of military activity, and was destroyed by the conquering Romans in 70 CE.  A Roman Temple was later built on the site over it..  Since Mohammad died in 632 CE and his men spread out to conquer the world and spread Islam, a mosque, al Harim ash -Sherif,  has stood there where the 2nd Temple had stood and was built by Caliph Abd al-Malik around the year 738 CE to replace the temporary structure set up by Caliph Omar a century earlier, called  the Mosque of Omar/Dome of the Rock.. Supposedly Mohammad flew there on his flying horse before he died to see the mosque.   Omar was the 2nd caliph and ruled from 634 to 644.  It was during his reign that Palestine and Syria were conquered, and also Mesopotamia.  On his orders, most of the Jews were expelled from northern Arabia.  That's it.  That is the Islamic connection to Jerusalem's Temple Mount.  That's why Moshe Dayan was nice enough to let the Jordanian religious leader have dominion over their mosque site.

The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia
facts about israel by Division of information, ministry for foreign affairs, Jerusalem